서귀포출장샵✄예약▧서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포마사지 배우기﹜¤[서귀포남자 출장 마사지]▷서귀포안산 줄리엣 마사지﹌서귀포거제 안마방✑서귀포에로틱 마사지⇤서귀포안마방 무료야동╣서귀포마사지 젤

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

서울출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

서귀포출장샵ワ24시출장샵√서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포이천 마사지﹜η[서귀포안마방 오르가즘]⇈서귀포천안 출장☳서귀포출장샵예약♮서귀포가락동 마사지☪서귀포아침에 안마방☭서귀포한국마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 대구울산 삼산동 출장 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

서귀포출장샵✣출장부르는법☲서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포아로마 마사지﹜╃[서귀포라페스타 안마방]ξ서귀포부평 에이스 안마방◀서귀포마사지 서양♟서귀포울산 삼산동 안마방⊙서귀포출장✥서귀포안마방 건마

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

서귀포출장샵○예약┊서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포마사지 관리사﹜✔[서귀포의정부 여관]✙서귀포마사지 19♪ 서귀포고양이 마사지ノ서귀포부산 연산동 출장☼서귀포일본 안마방↨서귀포모텔 티켓

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 원주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

서귀포출장샵♦24시출장샵╬ 서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포안마방 녹음﹜╬[서귀포주안 마사지]⇂서귀포서울 출장 마사지γ서귀포연산 안마방♂서귀포상암동 안마방✎서귀포전주 타이 마사지•서귀포경성대 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 철원안마방 욕 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

서귀포출장샵⇤출장부르는법┠서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포발마사지﹜⇩[서귀포천안안마]┬서귀포구디 안마방▲서귀포소프 마사지☞서귀포부산역 모텔 추천➹서귀포후두 마사지♨서귀포부산 마사지 추천

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

서귀포출장샵서귀포상동 안마방

  • 고성안마방 휴게텔
  • 서귀포스타 안마방
  • 서귀포출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    서귀포출장샵◀출장부르는법✯서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포광교 마사지﹜☣[서귀포태국 현지 마사지]▣서귀포출장걸☼서귀포안마방 발기❀서귀포안마방 튜브➻서귀포아산 안마방⇛서귀포안마방 초이스.mp4

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 안양마사지 로드샵 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    영월새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트 대전출장안마 창녕여대생 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    서귀포출장샵U예약금없는출장샵↕서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포일본 마사지 품번﹜╆[서귀포유성 안마방 후기]◐서귀포도쿄 마사지☳서귀포안마방 vip↪서귀포천안 만남☯서귀포여주 모텔 추천▨서귀포동래 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 증평오리역 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    서귀포출장샵◘예약금없는출장샵⇌서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포남편 마사지﹜❄[서귀포창원 마사지]◙서귀포질 마사지┡서귀포마사지 수면실✍서귀포카톡 출장 만남メ서귀포마사지 크림╔서귀포석계 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    김천고딩 안마방
    보은모텔 부산 평택출장샵 함안콜 걸
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    서귀포출장샵♂24시출장샵▽서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포경주 안마방﹜╃[서귀포섹시 마사지]╗서귀포비엔티엔 마사지↘서귀포구로 안마방┨서귀포진접 안마방♡서귀포마사지 마무리☀서귀포태국 마사지 서비스

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 수원출장샵 .

    서귀포출장샵►예약⇙서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포마사지 카운터 알바﹜◑[서귀포청량리 안마방]✥서귀포비 안마방♥서귀포상록수역 안마방ⓥ서귀포두통 마사지♥서귀포출장샵예약↕서귀포필승 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 화순안마방 감염 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    서귀포출장샵☻출장부르는법ニ서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포호텔 출장﹜➼[서귀포남성 전용 마사지]⇜서귀포마사지 분수ケ서귀포오창 안마방┲서귀포코 마사지⊙서귀포일본에서 한국녀섭외 마사지┶서귀포태국 마사지 썰

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    서귀포출장샵☪24시출장샵☆서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포예약금 없는 출장 샵﹜◢[서귀포승모근 마사지]♐서귀포안마방 모닝콜♜서귀포천호 안마방┇서귀포대구 콜♔서귀포마사지 추천▦서귀포부산 해운대 출장

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 김포귀두 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 합천진영 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 군산출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    서귀포출장샵✦예약ν서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포아로마 마사지 효능﹜╚[서귀포지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지]♛서귀포안마방 하드◑서귀포구래동 마사지┍서귀포저주파 마사지►서귀포마사지 샤워기✖서귀포부산 안마방 후기

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 원주출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    서귀포출장샵✂예약↨서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포마사지 관리사﹜◊[서귀포방이동 마사지]♧서귀포창동역 마사지❀서귀포tumblr 안마방☣서귀포인도 뉴델리 마사지β서귀포안마방 아쿠아↛서귀포동해 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부여베트남 마사지 야동
    군산출장샵 양양텀블러 마사지 전주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    서귀포출장샵❥예약♡서귀포타이마사지 팁﹛서귀포마사지 서비스﹜▬[서귀포전립선 마사지 비용]◎서귀포에로 마사지△서귀포군포 마사지┶서귀포로미 마사지↺서귀포마닐라 마사지μ서귀포삼산동 출장

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.서귀포출장샵서귀포안마방 사귄☆서귀포서울 출장 후기▦[서귀포포천 안마방]서귀포마송 안마방◦서귀포강남 마사지↷서귀포노량진 안마방✿서귀포나비야 마사지ナ창원출장안마출장부르는법서귀포최음 마사지£서귀포타이 마사지 썰┳〔서귀포마사지 도구〕서귀포당동 안마방ω서귀포강남 타이마사지μ서귀포천안 출장☼서귀포안마방 업소⇟서귀포출장샵보은진접 안마방서귀포해운대 안마방▫서귀포천호동 안마방ナ(서귀포안마방 24시간)서귀포마사지 강간☝서귀포안마방 체크카드╂서귀포삼산동 마사지☞서귀포덕계 마사지的서귀포안마방 검색⇡서귀포발리 마사지⇡〈서귀포엘림 마사지〉서귀포av 마사지 추천»서귀포마사지 서양☀서귀포안양역 안마방↕서귀포청주 마사지┘서귀포마사지 공떡♪ 서귀포렉시벨 마사지⇌『서귀포양곡 안마방』서귀포vip 마사지♠서귀포출장샵추천♪ 서귀포필리핀 마사지▣서귀포부산 안마방◊서귀포출장 선입금➥서귀포동서울 안마방╢{서귀포강서구청 마사지}서귀포청주 안마방 가격┰서귀포일산 모텔 가격☎서귀포오산 마사지╢서귀포일본 마사지 몰카♤예약금없는출장샵대구신원동 마사지예약금없는출장샵서귀포타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ▧서귀포원룸 출장[‹서귀포안마방 번호›서귀포퇴폐⇀서귀포창원 출장 숙소♀서귀포자궁 마사지╈서귀포송강동 마사지イ서귀포출장샵서귀포출장샵대구출장샵서귀포마사지 받다가서귀포대전 커플 마사지서귀포안마방 첫경험서귀포붕따우 마사지서귀포출장샵서귀포안마방 야간κ서귀포안마방 대전☂《서귀포러시아 밤문화》서귀포크리스마스 안마방┕서귀포타이 마사지 퇴폐▤서귀포일본 마사지 품번↕서귀포보령 안마방❁태안안마방 경험

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics